Every year, the largest online community for developers, Stack Overflow, surveys its audience: this year, more than 100,000 programmers shared their work and technology preferences. We looked at the 10 programming languages developers want to learn the most.
Backend developers (57.9%), full-stack developers (48.2%), frontend developers (37.8%) and mobile developers (20.4%) make up the majority of the site’s audience. Accordingly, the results are more relevant to these areas of programming.
What programming languages are most often used by Stack Overflow audience
What developers around the world dream of learning
It’s more interesting to look at the ranking of technologies that developers would like to learn. As of 2021, the top ten most desirable languages to learn are as follows:
- Python – 25.1%
A general-purpose language that is used almost everywhere: in web and desktop applications, network servers, machine learning, data analysis, and more. Python code is well readable and structured, so it’s a good place to start learning the basics of programming.
The first most popular language in the Stack Overflow and GitHub rankings, ranked in the top ten by TIOBE. At the same time, it is second in line to be studied.
- Go – 16.2%
Programming language developed by Google. It is mainly used in backend development. Google notes that Go is experimental and combines the performance and security of C ++ with the speed of Python. Go is used by Abode, BBC, IBM, Intel and Medium.
The level of interest in the language is mixed. For example, the TIOBE ranking, based on a survey of professionals and search queries, notes a decline in interest in Go.
- Kotlin – 12.4%
A rapidly gaining popularity young programming language (released in 2016). It is positioned as a language that can replace Java – it has already surpassed it in this rating.
It is the official development language for Android. Slack, Udacity and NYTimes – Latest News applications have been written in Kotlin.
Experts from Google describe the language by the words “expressive, concise and powerful.
- TypeScript – 11.9%
- Java – 10.5%
The language is used in backend development, data analysis, systems engineering and development for the Android operating system.
At the moment it is not the most “fashionable” language, but the code written in it does not depend on operating systems and equipment, and applications work well on any device. Cross-platform is one of the reasons why the largest companies continue to use Java.
Also, Java developers are some of the highest paid professionals both in Russia and in the world.
- C++ – 10.2%
A highly efficient, flexible programming language created back in 1983. It is still in high demand because of its performance, reliability, and diversity of uses. C++ is used to develop software, applications, device drivers, embedded system applications, high-performance servers, and games.
However, in the last 10 years, according to PYPL (PopularitY of Programming Language) rating, the interest to learn the language is decreasing year by year.
- Rust – 8.3%
A fast language for system programming, released in 2010 with support from Mozilla Research. The language is used for system programming. In terms of speed and features, it is comparable to C++. Rust topped the “most favorite programming languages” in the Stack Overflow developer survey in 2016, 2017, and 2018.
- C# – 8.0%
A programming language developed by Microsoft Corporation in 2010. It is used to develop software, desktop and web applications, and games. Suitable for those who are just beginning to learn programming languages.
- Swift – 7.7%
A relatively new programming language released by Apple in 2014, used for developing applications for iOS and macOS. It is worth paying attention to those who dream to engage in mobile development. Moreover, the knowledge of Swift is highly paid.